Learn Preposition

Look at the following sentences:
There is a book on the table.
He lives at Chaumuhani.
Mr. Tom lived in Dhaka.
The bird went away over my head.
In above sentences on, at, in, over placed before the table, Chaumuhani, Dhaka, my head. So on, at, in, over are called prepositions.
On the other hand ‘Pre’- means ‘previous’ and position means ‘situation’. So it alphabetically means previous situation. There is a question, where it sits. It sits before noun or pronoun, so these (red marked above)  are called preposition.
Authentic definition:
A preposition is a word placed before a noun or noun equivalent to show in what relation the person or thing denoted thereby stand to something else—J.C. Nesfield.
A preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun stands the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else—Wren & Martin.
A preposition is a word that is placed before a noun or pronoun to show the relation of that noun or pronoun with any other word of the sentence—P.C. Das.
We can conclude:
A preposition is a word placed before a noun or pronoun to show its relation to another noun or pronoun.
Classification of Preposition:
Prepositions are of six kinds:-
As: 1. Simple Preposition
2. Double Preposition
3. Compound Preposition
4. Participle Preposition
5. Phrase Preposition
6. Disguised Preposition

1. Simple Preposition: It is constructed by only a word.
Example: At, in, on, by, of, to, about, with, for, up, after, from are simple Preposition.

2. Double Preposition: Two prepositions or words construct it. As: Into, onto, up to, within, upon behind are double preposition.

3. Compound Preposition: Such kind of preposition generally sits before noun, adjective and adverb constructed with be (by) or on (a). As: Above, across, behind, before, between, beyond

4. Participle Preposition: Some participles are used as Preposition. They are called participle preposition. As: Considering his old age, he was allowed to go. I know much regarding his career. During , respecting.

5. Phrase preposition: When phrase is used, as (acts like) preposition then it is called Phrase preposition. As: There is garden in front of our school. In spite of riches he is unhappy. He took English in lieu of Urdu.

6. Disguised Preposition: When a Preposition used briefly or used invisible or unmentionably, then it is called Disguised Preposition.
As: It is 7’O clock. (O’ = of).
He went hunting. (a = on)

Use of some preposition

Use of ‘At’:
1. before the small or short place: Example: I go to playground at 5:30. He lives at Tongi or at Azimpur.

2. before the fixed time: Example: He was born at 5:30.
3. Used for position and goal Example: He works at the market and at rest. Swung at the ball.
4. Used for expression of Purpose-:
(a) Let’s go and have coffee at Marcel’s.
5. Used for Target (look, wave, frown, point)-:
(a) Why are you looking at her like that?
(b) Because she smiled at me.
6. For attacks or aggressive behaviour (shoot, laugh, through and shout) -:
(a). It’s a strange to have somebody shoot at you.
(b). If you can’t laugh at yourself.
(c). Who can you laugh at?
(d). Stop throwing stones at the cat, darling.
(e). You don’t need to shout at me.
7. Arrive in generally followed by at.
(a). We should arrive at Pat’s in time for lunch.
8. At is used to talk about position point.-:
(a) It’s very hot at the centre of the earth.
(b) Turn night at the next corner.
9. At is used sometimes before a big place if it considers as a point.
(a) Let’s meet at the club. (a meeting point.)
(b) The plane stops for an hour at Frankfurt.

10. We very use at before the name of a building, when we are thinking not of the building itself but of the activity that happens there.
(a) There is a good film at the cinema.
(b) Eat at the steak house- best food in town.

11. At is particularly common with proper names used for buildings or organizations.
(a) I first met your father at Harrods.
(b) She works at legal and General Insurance.

12. At is used to say where people study.
(a) He’s at the London School of Economics.

13. At is used before the name of a city to refer to that city’s university.
(a) He is a student at Oxford.
14. At is also used before the names of group activities.
(a) At a party, (b) at a meeting, (c) at a concert, (d) at a lecture, (e) at the match.

15. We generally use at to talk address.
(a) Are you still at the same address?
(b) She lives at 73 Albert Street.

16. At can be used with, possessive to mean ‘at somebody’s house or shop.
(a) Where is Jane? She is round at Pat’s.
(b) You’re always at the hairdresser’s.

17. Especial expressions;
(a) at church, (b) at home/work, (c) at school/college, (d) Open at page 15.

18. before clock time.
(a) I usually get up at six O’clock.
(b) I meet you at 4.30.
(c) Phone me at lunchtime.
NB. At is usually left out before what time in an informal style. (What does your train leave?)

19. We use at to talk about the whole of the holidays at Christmas, New Year, Easter and Thanksgiving (US).
(a) We are having the roof repaired at Easter.
(b) What did you do at the weekend?

20. At all with negatives, we often use at all to emphasize a negative idea, questions.
(a) I did not understand at all.
(b) She was hardly frightened at all.
(c) Do you play poker at all?
(d) He‘ll come before supper if he comes at all?

21. At first- beginning.
(a) At first they were very happy.
22. before night.
(a) I often work at night.

23. before prize: He earns at 200Tk.per day.

24. before age: She is at sixteen now.
25. before day or night or fixed place: He cones at night and goes at daylight. They reached at our meeting place.

26. Motion: The car is running at 200 km/hr.

Use of ‘In’:
1. before big place and time for position.
As: He lives in Dhaka.
He goes in the evening.
My father lives in Canada.

2. To express stability inside anything.
As: He is in the room.

3. before month and year.
As: He was born in April 1972.

4. To express future period of time.
As: He will come in week.

5. To express end of the future period of time.
As: He will come in a month.

6. To express inside of the area.
As: Noakhali is in the south of Bangladesh.

7. We generally use in to talk about the positions of things, where they are.
(a) A moment later the ball was in the goal.
(b) She was walking in the garden.

8. If we mention the purpose of a movement before we mention the destination, we usually use in before the place.
(a) I went to see my father in Canada.

9. Arrived is generally followed by in.
Example: When did you arrive in New Zealand?

10. Before somebody’s home , big organization.
Example: (a) She lives in Frankfurt.
(b) She works in a big insurance company.

11. To mean living position of an institution. Example: (a) He lives in Cambridge.

12. In uses for position, inside a large areas, and in three-dimensional space (when something
is surrounded on all sides).
Example: (a) she grew up in Switzerland.
(b) I don’t think he is in his office.
(c). He lived in the desert for three years.
(d) Let’s go for a walk in the woods.
(e) I last saw her in the car park.
(f) She was swimming in the lake.

13. In is used to talk about the position of things which actually form part of the line.
Example: (a) There is a misprint in line 6 on page 22.
(b) Who’s the good –looking boy in the sixth row?

14. We use in to talk about private planes and boats.
Example: (a) Jump in and I’ll drive you to the station.

15. We use in (US on) if we just give the name of the street.
Example: (a) She lives in Albert Street.

16. Special expressions.
Example: In church, in school/college (American), in a picture, in the sky, in the rain, in a tent, in a hat, in bed.

17. Before parts of the day.
Example: (a) I work best in the morning.
(b) Three o’clock in the afternoon.
(c) We usually go out in the evening.

18. During one particular night.
Example: (a) I had to get up in the night.

19. Before longer periods: in
Example: (a) It happened in the weak after Christmas.
(b) I was born in March.
(c) Our house was built in the 15th Century.
(d) He died in 1987.
(e) Kent is beautiful in spring.

20. In can also be used to say how soon something will happen and to say how long something takes to happen.
Example: (a). Ask me again in three or four days.
(b) I can run 200 metres in about 30 seconds.

21. The expression is —-‘s time is used to say how soon something will happen not how ling something takes.
Example: (a) I’ll see you again in a month’s time.
(b) It’ll be ready in three weeks’ time.
(c) He wrote the book in a month.

22. In American English in can be used like for, to talk about periods up to the present (British only for).
Example: (a) I haven’t seen her in years.

23. Used to indicate physical surroundings –
Example: (a) I swim in the lake.
Use of ‘On’:

1. To talk about the position.
(a) The ball was on the goal.
(b) The cat’s on the roof again.

2. To talk about on a line (for example a road or a river)
(a) His house is on the way to Aberdeen to Dundee.
(b) Stratford is on the river Avon.
(c) Dhaka stands on the bank of Buriganga.

3. On is used for position on a surface.
(a) Hurry up –supper’s on the table.
(b) There is a big spider on the ceiling.

4. Attached to.
(a) Why do you wear that ring on your first finger?
(b) There aren’t many apples on the tree this year.

5. for position by a lake or sea, over and in contact
(a) Bowness is on Lake Windermere.
(b) Southend –on-sea.
(c) He jumped on his horse.

6. We use on (and off) to talk about travel using buses, plane, trains as well as motorcycles and horses. Example: (a) He’s arriving on the 3:15 train.
(b) We are booked on flight 604.
(c) There is no room on the bus.
(d) It took five days to cross the Atlantic on the Queen Elizabeth.

7. We use on for the number of the floor.
Example: (a) She lives in a flat on the third floor.

8. Especial expression.
Example: (a) On a firm,
(b). working on the railway.

9. before particular days, or during or at the time of.
Example: (a) I’ll ring you on Tuesday. My birthday’s on March 21st.
(b) They’re having a party on Christmas Day.
(c) They’re having a party on Easter Monday.
(d) I came on Monday.
(e) Every hour on the hour.

10. Before Plural day.
Example: (a) We usually go and see movie on Sundays.
(b) They usually go and see movie on Mondays.

11. before day or date.
Example: (a) He was born on Wednesday.

12. To express above the area.
Example: (a) The Garo Hills is on the north of Bangladesh.

13. Touching the surface
Example: (a) They sat on the wall.
(b) But Mita sat on the table.
(c) Shadows on the wall attracts the lover.
(d) There is a book on the table.

14. At, to – On the right were the mountains.

15. In, abroad – She went on the train

16. through the agency: – was cut on tin cane.

17. In state or process of: – on fire, on the wane.

18. Connected with as a number or participant – on a committee, on tour.

19. in or to position over and in contact with – jumped on his horse.

20. During or at the time of – came on Monday, every hour on the hour.

21. Used to indicate a basis, source, or standard of computation – has it on good authority,
10 cents on the dollar.

22. with regard to – a monopoly on wheat.

23. at or toward as an object – crept up on her.

24. About, concerning – a book on mineral.

Use of ‘By’:

1. before the certain time. As: Try to come by 4 o’clock.

2. To be done any deed, especially with a passive:
Example: (a). The snake was killed by Karim.
(b) I was attacked by a dog.
(c) She was killed by herself.
(d) Rice was being eaten by her.

3. Using or doing a particular thing.
Example: (a) You can reserve the tickets by phone.
(b) Send it by airmail.
(c) I know her by sight.
NB: By train, plain, car, etc.

4. Passing throw or along a particular place.
Example: (a) They came in by the back door.
(b) It’s quicker to go by the country route.

5. Beside or near something:
Example: (a) She stood by the window looking out over the fields.
(b) Jane went and sat by Patrick.

6. If you move or travel by someone or something, you go past them without stopping.
Example: (a) He walked by without notice me.
(b) I go by the Vicarage every day on my way to work.

7. Used to show the name of someone who wrote a book, produced a film, wrote a piece of music etc.
Example: (a) The new world sympathy by Dvorak.

8. Not later than a particular time, date etc,
Example: (a) the documents need to be ready by next Friday.
(b) I reckon the film should be over by 9:30.

9. According to a particular rule, method or way of doing things.
Example: (a) you got a play by the rules.
(b) Profits were Tk.1000 million, but by their standards this in low.

10. Used to show the amount or degree of smoking.
Example: (a) The price of oil fell by a further $2 a barrel.
(b) I was over charged by $3.
(c) Goddard’s first film was better by far.

11. Used to show the part of a price of equipment or of someone’s body that someone takes or holds.
Example: (a) He took her by the arm and led her across the road.
(b) She grabbed the hammer by the handle.

12. Used when expressing strong feelings or making serious promises.
Example: (a) By God, I’ll kill that boy when I see him!

13. Used between two numbers that you are multiplying or dividing.
Example: What are 48 divided by 4?

14. Used when giving the measurements of a room, container etc.
Example: (a) the room is 15 metres by 23 metres.

15. Used to show a rate or quality:
Example: (a) We’re paid by the hour.

16. Day by day / bit by bit etc. used to show the way in which something happens.
Example: (a) Day by day he grew weaker.

17. Used to show the situation or period of time during which you do something or something happens.
Example: (a) You could ruin your eyes reading by torchlight.

18. Used to show the connection between one fact or thing and another.
Example: (a) Colette’s French by birth.
(b) Its fine by me if you want to go.

19. As a result of an action or situation: – By accident,
Example: (a) I saw Maureen quite accident by the supermarket the other day. – By mistake,
(b) I manage to delete an afternoon’s work on the computer by mistake.

20. If a woman has children by a particular man, that man is the children’s father:
Example: (a) Ann’s got two children by the previous husband.

21. (All) by yourself completely alone:
Example: (a) Dave spent Christmas all by himself.

22. Through or through the medium of – left by the door.

23. Past – drove by the house.

24. During, at – studied by night.

25. No later than – get here by 3 pm.

26. through the means or direct agency of – by force.

27. In conformity with, also: according to – did it by the book.

28. with respect to – a vet by profession.

29. To the amount or extent of – won by a nose.

30. Used to express relationship in multiplication, in division and in measurements- divided a by b, multiply by six, 15 feet by 20 feet.

31. Way means – the work was done by him.

32. to mean time – 10pm by my watch.

33. Oath – swore by God or Allah

Of

1. It is used for a. belonging to or possesses by somebody or own by somebody or associated with. As: He is a friend of mine. That house of theirs is fine. The front of the house, – a time of life, one of you, – the best of its kind, – the sun of a doctor.
b. (Followed by a noun) is belonging to something, being part of something. As: The handle of the umbrella, leg of a table, lid of the box.
c. Used to show a feature or quality that something has. As: the colour of her dress, the width of the road, the size of john’s overdraft.
d. having as component parts or material, contents or members- a pack of fools.

2. Used to talk about a group or collection of particular people or things. As: a herd of elephants, the Monalisa is one of his finest works.
3. Relating to somebody’s role, status or position, the role of the teacher, the rights of man, responsibilities of a nurse, and the privileges of the elite.

4. Originating from a specific background or living in a place. As: A woman of Pakistani descent, man of humble origin, the miners of Wales, the habitant of the area.

5. Used to talk about a particular amount or measurement of something. As: Two Kilos of Sugar, lots of money, a drop of water, a cup of coffee.

6. (Especially referring to somebody’s works as a whole) created by somebody: the works of Milton, the paintings of Monet, the songs of Britney Spears.

7. — Used in dates: the 28th July.
— American English used in giving the time to mean before; a quarter of seven (= 6:45)

8. – Used after nouns describing actions, to show who the action is done to: as: the killing of innocent children.
— Used after describing actions, to show who does the action; the barking of the dogs.

9. Used to say what subject, person, thing etc another person or thing is connected with: the queen of England disease of the liver, the result of the meeting, the advantages of using a computer.

10. Used to say what something is made from: a dress of pure silk. / These bowls are made of plastic./ Shirts made of cotton./ a house of stone.

11. – the day / year etc of the day, year etc that something happened: the day of the accident/ the week of the festival:
— of the day/ year the best or most important persons or thing or a particular day or year: She has been voted ’Woman of the year.’
— Of an evening/ of a weekend used to say that you often do something in the evenings, at weekend etc: we always like to walk by the river of an evening.

12. Used to show that something is the result of something else: she left of her own free will. / He died of cancer./ The effects of radiation.
– used to say who writes a play, who paints a painting etc. the plays of Shakespeare. / The building is the work of a great artist.
— used to show what a picture, story etc. is about or who is in it: a photo of Elizabeth. / A map of Bangladesh. / A story of love and loss.

14. about something /somebody: He’s never heard of John Keats./ Rumors of his infidelity filled the newspapers./ He told us of his travels.

15. Used to show where something is or how far something is from something else: east of Suez / I live within a mile of here.

16. Used to describe a particular person or thing: a woman of tremendous spirit. / A matter of no importance.

17. Especially literary used to say where someone comes from: Jesus of Nazareth. / The people of China.

18. it is kind of / it was wrong of etc. used to say that something that someone has done shows that they are kind , wrong etc. it was silly of him to think he could cheat.

19. Used after some /many/ a few etc. and between a numeral or superlative adjective and a pronoun or debt. As: some of his friends. / A few of my CD’s. / Not much of the food. / Six of them/ five of the team. / The last of the girls. / The brightest of all the students.

20. Dated frequently happening at a specified time: they used to visit me a Sunday (i.e. on Sundays).

21. In relation to something, concerning: the topic of conversation/ a dictionary of English/ the professor of Mathematics. / A director of the company.

22. from – a man of west.

23. Having as significant background or character element – a man of noble birth, a woman of ability.

24. Owing to – died of flue.

25. Written by – the plays of Shakespeare.

26. about – tales of the west.

27. Connected with – the queen of England.

28. that is signified – the city of Rome.

29. used to indicate apposition of the words it joins- that fool of a husband.

30. as concerns: for – love of nature.

31. before – quarter of ten.
To

1. To is used for movement or direction.
Example: (a) I go to Canada to see him whenever I can.
(b) He gets to the market by bike.

2. To is used as an expression of purpose.
Example: (a) Let’s go to Marcel’s for coffee.
(b) I went to Canada to see my father.

3. Throw to and shout to be used when there is no idea of attack.
Example: (a) Please do not throw food to the animals.
(b) Could you shout to Phil and tell him its breakfast time?

4. Never is followed by to.
Example: (a) Never go to the cinema.

5. To is used to indicate in a direction from and towards a particular person or thing.
(a) I am sitting to the left of the president. Drove to town.

6. To is used in order to be in a particular place or area.
(a) We are hoping to go to Istanbul for our holidays this year.
(b) I usually go to bed at 11 p.m.
(c) Where’s Emily? She is gone to the loom.

7. To is used in order to be in a particular situation, or in a particular physical or mental state.
(a) After two difficult years the company is now on the road to recovery.
(b) She sang the baby to sleep. (c) Wait until the light changes to green.

8. To is used for reaching as far as a particular thing. (a) The water came right up to our knees. Going to school.

9. In a position in which two things are touching: (a). The paper stuck firmly to the wall. (b) They danced check to check.

10. Facing something or in front of it. (a) I sat with my back to the engine. (b) We stood face to face. (c) The two houses were back to back.

11. until and including as: (a) She can already count from one to twenty. (b) They stayed from Friday night to Sunday morning. (c) Its ten kilometres from here to Angers. (d) She read the novel from beginning to the end.

12. Used to show person or thing to which actions or words are directed or to whom things belong: as: (a) this is a letter to Milton from George. (b) Have you told all your news to john? (c) You have no right to this land. (d) Will they give you an office to yourself?

13. Used to show the person or thing that is affected by an action. As: (a). It is dangerous to your health. (b) She is very kind to animals. (c) What have you done to the radio? (d) There’s always an element of risk to starting up a new business. Whispered to her. gave it to me.

14. Working for someone or, being a part of something that is necessary to make it work: (a) Have you seen the key to the back door? (b) Rona’s secretary is to the Managing Director.

15. Used when comparing two things, numbers etc. as: (a) I know he is successful but he is nothing to what he could have been. (b) England beat Scotland by two goals to one.

16. Used especially after verbs such as seem, feel, sound’ to show how things affect, concern, or influence someone. As; (a) the whole thing sounds very suspicious to me.

17. According to a particular feeling or attitude. As: (a) The doctor is not really to our liking. (b) You could use this information to your advantage. (c) Brookner has not to my knowledge written any books since this one.

18. to your surprise/annoyance/delight in a way that makes you feel a particular emotion: (a) Much to her surprise she passed the exam with distinction.

19. Especially spoken forming something or being one of the separate parts that makes something up: (a) we’re only getting eight francs to the pound at the moment. (b) There are sixteen ounces to every pound.

20. To is used when adding one number to another or, when thinking about two facts at the same time. As; (a) Add fifty to seventy five.

21. To be used to show that there is a certain amount of time before an event or before a particular time. As: (a) only two weeks to Christians. (b) How long it is to dinner?

22. ‘To’ is used between two numbers when you try to guess an exact number.
As: (a) There must have been between eighty to twenty thousand people at the concert.
23. To Express out of area.
As: The Himalayas is to the north of Bangladesh.
24. To express towards any gaining place.
As: He goes to school.
25. in the direction of and reaching – drove to town.
– in the direction of : toward – going to school.
– On, against – apply salve to a burn.
– as far as – can pay up to a dollar.
– so as to become or bring about – beaten to death, broken to pieces.
26. Before – its five minutes to six.
– Until – from May to December.
– Fitting or being a part of : for – Key to the lock.
– With the accompaniment of – sing to the music.
– In relation or comparison with- similar to that one, – won ten to six.
– In accordance with – add salt to taste.
– Within the range of – to my knowledge.
– Contained, occurring, or included in – two pints to a quart.
– As regards – agreeable to everyone.
27. Affecting as the receiver or beneficiary – whispered to her, – gave it to me.
28. for no one except – a room to myself.
– Into the action of – we got to talking.
29. used for marking the following verbs as an infinitive – wants to go, and often used by itself at the end of a clause in place of an infinitive suggested by the preceding context – goes to town whenever he wants to, can leave if you’d like to.
30. From one to another – a letter to Rahim.
– Long run – sent to the jail.

For

1. Intended to be given or belong to a particular person.(I) I’ve got a present for you. (ii) Save some for Aurther.

2. Intended to be used in a particular situation. As: (a) We’ve bought some new chairs for the office. (b) This is a nameplate for the door.

3. Used to show the purpose of an object, action etc. as; (a) it is a knife for cutting bread. (b) What did you do that for? (c) For sale / hire / rout.

4. If you do something for someone, you do it instead of him or her in order to help them. (I) I look after the kids for her. (ii) Let me lift that for you. (iii) I am living Azimpur for my wife.

5. If something is done for someone or if they are given something for a problem, they are helped or their situation is improved: (I) The doctor knew that there was nothing he could do for her. (a) I’ve found it for you. (b) I’ll do what I can for you. (c) What can I do for you?

6. If something is arranged for particular time, it is planned that it should happen then. (a) I’ve invited them for 9 O’clock. (b) I’ve made an appointment for 18th October. (c) It’s time for supper.

7. If you buy someone /something or arrange an event for their birthday etc. you do it to celebrate that occasion. (a) What did you get for your birthday? (b) I bought a gift for your marriage day.

8. Used to express a length of time. (a) Bake the cake for 40 minutes. (b) They had been walking for a good half an hour. (c) I’ve been meaning to ask you for ages. (d) He’s been off work for a long time. (e). For a while: I’m borrowing it for a while.

9. For now/for the moment used to say that you are suggesting something as a temporary solution, but it may be changed later. (I) I think for now we’re just going to have to keep the cats in the house. (ii) You can put your bags in my house for the moment.

10. Used to express distance. (I) We walked for miles. (ii) Factories and warehouses stretched for quite a distance along the canal.

11. Used to state where a person, vehicle etc is going. (I) I get off for work. (ii) That was the night before leaving for New York. (ii) The train left for Manchester. (iii) I’m for bed/home.

12. Used to show a price or amount. (a) This is a cheque for a hundred Tk. (ii) The diamond is insured for two thousand dollars.

13. In order to have does get or obtain something. (I) She decided to look for a job. (ii) Mother was ill to get up for dinner. (iii) The qualifications are necessary for entry to university. (iv) Run for your life.

14. Now for spoken used to say what you’re going to have or do now: (i.) Now for some fun he is staying here.

15. Because of or as a result of something: (i.) if for any reason, you cannot attend in the meeting you should inform the authority. (ii) He got a reward for bravery. (iii) We could hardly see for depreciation. For doing something: He got a ticket for driving through a red light. – cry for joy.

16. As to or concerning something, (I) I felt sorry for him. (ii) He has a talent for upsetting people.(iii) I’m sure she’s the ideal person for the job.(iv) We had pasta for lunch. (v) Fortunately for him, he can swim. (vi) The success rates for each task are given in Table. (vii) This is too hard for me to do. (viii) He’s a great one for (= he always wants or is concerned with) (ix) He’s a great one for details. (x) Are you all right for money? (ix.) She is not for me.

17. If you work for a company, play for a team etc., this is one in which you work, play etc. (I) Surveyors working for property services. (ii) He writes for a weekly paper. (iii) She plays for a team.

18. In favour of supporting or in agreement with something discussing the case for and against nuclear energy. (I) How many people voted for the proposal? (ii) Three cheers for the captain. (iii) All for: I’m all for people enjoying themselves.

19. Representing meaning or as a sign of something: (a) What’s the word for happy in French? (b) Red is for danger.

20. Used after a comparative form to mean after as a result of or because of (a) You’ll feel better for a break.

21. Used to say that a particular feature of someone or something is surprising when you consider what they are: (a) It’s cold for the time of year. (b) She looks young for her age.

22. For somebody/ something to do something. Used to introduce a phrase that is used instead of a clause. (a) It is really unusual for Michael to get cross. (b) I cannot bear for somebody or something to.
— Nothing worse / easier than for something/ somebody to (a) there is nothing worse than for a present to ill treat a child.
— Used when you are describing what someone should do, might do or has done: (a) the plan is for us to leave in the morning.
— A need/desire/chance for something/somebody to: (a) There is an urgent need for someone to tackle this problem. (b). There will be an opportunity for them to do again.
— Used when you are explaining a reason for something. (a) He must have had some bad news for to be so quit. (as/ since/ he is so quiet.) (b) I have sent off my coat for it to be cleaned. (c) In order that it may be cleaned.
— Used when you are saying what someone or something is able to do: (a) It’s easy for a computer to keep a record of this information. (b) It’s impossible for me to get money out of Dorothy.
— Large / difficult near enough for somebody/ something to. (a) The dolphin was near enough for me to reach out and touch it.
— Too large/ difficult/ near for somebody/ something. (a) It’s too difficult for me to explain.

23. for each / every used to say that each of one kind of thing has or will have something of another kind: (a) For each mistakes you’ll lose half a portion. (b) for every three people who agree you’ll find five who don’t.
24. for all
— in spite of (a) for all his efforts, he still came last (b) She still loves him for all that.
— Considering how little (a) for all the success you have had, you might just as well have not bothered!

25. For all I know /care: spoken used to say that you don’t really know or case: (a) For all I know he could be dead. (b). He can jump into the river for all I care!

26. I would not do it for anything in formal used to emphasize that you definitely would not do it: (a) I would not go through that again for anything.

27. I for, one believes think that—Spoken this is my opinion, even if no ones else agrees: (a) I for one believe that she’s making a big mistake.

28. For one thing – (and for another) used when you are giving reasons for a statement you have made. (a) No I’m not going to buy it; for one thing I don’t far too expensive.

29. If it were for/ if it had not been for — If a particular thing had not happened, if someone had not done something, or if a situation was different: (a) If it had not been for you, I would not be alive now.

30. (Well) that’s / there’s — for you spoken – Used to say that it is typical that something has been as disappointment: You cannot expect any thing better of that type of thing: (a) That’s foreign hotel for you!

31. Be (in) for it to be likely to be blamed or punished; (a) You’ll be for it if she finds out what you have done!
32. As a preparation toward – dress for dinner.
33. Toward the purpose or goal of – need time for study, – money for a trip.
34. So as to reach or attain – run for cover.
35. as being – took him for a fool.
36. used to indicate recipient – a letter for you.
37. in support of – fought for his country.
38. derected as: affected – a cure for what ails you.
39. used with a noun or pronoun following by an infinitive to form the equivalent of a noun clause – for you to go would be silly.
40. in exchange as equal to: so as to return the value of – a lot of trouble for nothing.
41. pay – tk.100 for a cap.
42. concerning – a sticker for detail.
43. through the period of – served for three years.
44. in honor of – a party was arranged for VIP.

With

1. against – a fight with his brother.
2. From – parting with friends.
3. In mutual relation to – talk with a friend.
4. In the company of – went there with her.
5. As regards, toward – is patient with children.
6. Compared to – on equal terms with another.
7. In support of – I’m with you all the way.
8. In the presence of: containing – tea with sugar.
9. in the opinion of: as judged by- their arguments had
10. Because of, through – pale with anger, also by means of – hit him with a club.
11. in a manner indicating – work with a will
12. Given, granted – with your permission I‘ll leave.
13. Having – came with good news, – stood these with mouth open.
14. at the time of – right after: with that left.
15. Despite –with all her cleverness, she failed.
16. In the direction of – swim with the tide.
17. Before tools – I cut the mango with the knife.

Up,

1. to, toward, or at a higher point of – up a ladder.
2. to or toward the source of – up the river.
3. to, or toward the northern part of – up the coast.
4. To or toward the interior of – traveling up the country.
5. Along – walk up the street.
6. at a particular place: Do you fancy going up the town?

Down

1. Towards the ground or lower point or in a lower position – The bathroom is down those stairs.
2. Along – The wind raced down the alley.
3. In the direction of the rivers current – We sailed down the river.
4. Down the shops/hospital /park/ market etc. — Biltu is just gone down the pub.
5. Down in, on, along or through, toward the bottom of.
6. Down the road pike/ line etc. you will understand better a few years down the line.

From,

1. It is used to show starting point of any action.
Example: A letter to me from home informing my mother’s illness.

2. It is used to show removal or separation:
Example: Subtract the number 7 from 29 then write the result.

3. It is used to show a material source or, cause:
Example: We were suffering from a cold for a month.

After:
1. It is used to express past period of time.
Example: He returned home after a week.
The doctor died after the patient had come.

Since or from/ for: ‘For’ is used before period of time and since or from is used before
point of time and form of verb is past perfect tense.
As: He has been absent for four days since Monday last.

Double Preposition:

Use of ‘ Into’:
1. To express entering inside. i.e. dynamically and to change.
As: He enters into the Room. He ran into the house.

2. To the state , condition or form of – He got into trouble.

3. Time- at or until a certain time. Anu and I talked well into the night.

4. Against- The fox ran into a wall.

5. Direction: Make sure your speaking directly into the microphone.

6. Inside container, place , area: She got back into bed and pull quit over head. I have get to go into town.

7. Involved in something: I went into the printing trade at the age of 16.

8. Different, appearance, situation – You’ll have to eat your vegetables if you want to grow into a big strong boy.

9. hit, touch, meet – I ran into Brad at the blue bard last night.

10. Be into something – I have really got into English films.

Use of ‘onto:’

1. To a position or point on: He jumped onto the horse back.

2. Expressing movement meaning in or one particular place: the man manage to jump onto the train while it was moving.

3. On to somebody: The police are onto him.

4. Be/get onto somebody: Get onto the hospital and see if they can spare nurses.

5. Be onto a good thing / a winner (very good situation) – She is onto a real winner with that job.

6. A room looks or gives onto another room on where that room leads – the main sitting area looked out onto a beautiful view of the hills.

Use of ‘up to’:

1. As far a designated: part or place on :

2. To or fulfillment of :

3. To the limit of as many or as much as.

4. To the time of : until.
Use of ‘out of’:

1. out from with in or behind – walk out of the room, lookout of the window.
2.. from a state of – wake up out of a deep sleep.
3. beyond the limits of – out of sight
4. Because of : came out of curiosity.
5. from ,with – built it out of scrap.
6. in or into a state of loss or not having – cheated him out of TK5000. We are out of matches.
7. From among – One out of four.
8. Out of it. – source , old fashion.

Use of within:

1. Before exceed of future period of time.
As: He will come within a month.
2. Inside the limits or influence of – with in call.
3. In or to the inner part of – with in the room.
4. Place – with in the school area.
5. Time – with in two months.

Use of upon
1.on – an honour bestowed upon the association, – We are completely dependent upon your help.
Use of behind

Compound Preposition

:
Use of ‘About’:

1. Reasonably close to: also: on the verge of – Hasan was about join the army.
2. On all sides – I wrapped a piece of cloth about my finger.
3. Nearby – He is about to Dhaka.
4. Approximately – His knife was about six inches long.
5. Occasion on – They went there about that matter.
6. Position – He likes to write about him.
7. About your person – He had concealed the weapon somewhere about his person.
8. Do something about to do something to solve a problem or stop a bad situation – What can be done about the rising levels of pollution.
9. Basic purpose – Basically the job’s all about helping people.
10. Be quick about it. – Get me a drink and be quick about it.
11. On or dealing with a particular subject – a book about physics.
12. In many difference directions with a particular place – We spent the whole afternoon walking about town.
13. In the nature or character of a person or thing – There is something odd about Liza.
14. Use to ask for news or information – What about Mina?
15. Used to make a suggestion –How about a salad for lunch?
16. Used to introduce a subject that you want to talk about – about that car of yours. It’s about Tommy.

Use of ‘Across’:
1. On or towards the opposite side of something – my, best friend lives across the road.
2. In every part of the country, organization etc. Teachers are expected to teach a range of subjects.
3. On so as to cross or pass at an angle- a long across the road.
4. To or on the opposite side of – ran across the street.
5. Going looking etc. from one side of a space, area, or line to the other side: we gazed across the valley.
6. Reaching or spreading from one side of an area to the other: slowly a smile spread across her face. Do you think the shirt is too tight across the shoulders?

Use of ‘beneath’
1. in or to a lower position than something or directly under something – the dolphins disappeared beneath the waves.
2. In a lower or less important rank or job than someone else – She would not speak to peoples she consider beneath her.
3. Not suitable for someone because of not being good enough. – Seema considered it beneath her even to reply to the insult.
4. A feeling or attitude that is beneath another feeling or attitude is covered or hidden by it. – Dave sensed that something more sinister lay beneath the woman’s cheerful exterior.
5. Below, under –> Samira stood beneath a tree.
6. Concealed by – He put the book beneath the cloth.
Use of ‘Along’:
1. In a line with the direction of – sail along the coast.
2. At a point on or during – stopped along the way.
Use of Among:
1. To express more than two.
As: The teacher gave mangoes among the boys and girls.

Use of ‘Before’:
1. before certain time.
As: Try to come before 5 o’clock.

2. in a double incidental sentence, after using past perfect tense.
As: The patient had died before the doctor came.
3. Earlier than – go there before them.
4. In a more important category than – put quality before quantity
5. Ahead of some one or something else – I think you were before me in the queue.
6. In front of – stood before him.
7. Report or evidence – the proposal was put before the planning committee.
8. One quality or person comes before another – I put my wife and kids before any one else.
9. Formal in front of – The priest stood before the alter.
10. One place before another place (distance) – The pub is 100mbefore the chance on the night.
11. Job situation before – The task of employing the house day before us.
12. A period of time is before your start – we had a glorious summer afternoon before us to do as we pleased.
13. To show a particular reaction before someone or something you react – She trembled before the prospect of meaning him again.

Use of ‘Behind’:

1. in or to place or situation in back or to the rear of – look behind you. – the staff stayed behind the troops.
2. Inferior to – as a rank: below.
– Three games behind the first place team.
3. In support of: supporting – we’re behind you all the way.
4. Quickly or attitude behind an appearance- she suspected that a certain criticism lay behind his cheerful exterior.
5. see – simple
6. at or towards the back of something – The dog ran out from behind a house.
7. Not as successful or advanced as someone or something else: we are three points behind from other team. What’s behind something being the secret or hidden change of plan.
8. Supporting a person, idea etc. – The workers are very much behind the proposals.
9. Responsible for a plan or idea etc.- The Rotary club is behind the fund raising for the new hospital.
10. For unpleasant experience or situation – Hasan’s got five years of experience as a school teacher behind him.

Use of Beside:
1. Near or very close to – Sit beside me in my danger.
2. Use to compare two people or things – this year sales figure don’t look very good beside last years result.
3. Not relevant to –
4. Beside the point – How old is she? That’s beside the point the question is, can she do the job?
5.
Use of Besides: [bisaiz]
1. ‘Besides’ use to mean too or although. – Besides this pen I need another one.
2. other than – Besides this pen he has another pencil.
3. Together with –

Use of Between:
1. Relation with the two persons.
As: He divided the mangoes between Ali and Omar.

Use of Without:
1. out side –old use
2. Lacking –without hope, we had to survive without light or heating for a whole time.
3. Not accompanied by or showing – Spoke without thinking.
4. Not doing or having something, or not showing a particular feeling – he had gone without his partners permission.
5. Happen easily – I manage to get through the exam without too much trouble.
6. Without wishing to – use before criticism.

Follow the appropriate Preposition:

Abide by (obey) – We should abide by the order of our teacher.
Abide with (live)- Allah abides with everybody who is dedicated as a Muslim.
Abide in (to live any place)-I shall not abide long in Dhaka.
Abound with (stay full)- Forests abound with tigers and ferocious animals.
Abound in (gets)- The fish abounds in sea. Wild animals abound in the forest.
Absent from (not present)- He was absent from the meeting.
Abstain from (avoid, refrain)-Everybody should abstain from smoking.
Access to (entering right, approach)-
Accused of (blame as guilty)
Addicted to (attract to bad task, enslave to a bad habit)-
Adept in (efficient)-
Adjacent to (nearest)-
Affection for (love for child)-
Afraid of (feared)- I am not afraid of ghost. Are you afraid of ghost?
Agree with (be agree)-
Aim at (shoot)-
Ambition for (to be high in rank)-
Angry with (be bored with any body)-
Angry to (be bored with the deed of any body)-
Answer to (to show signs of accepting as one’s name)-
Answer to/for (to accept responsibility)-

Participle Preposition:

Definition: The preposition that uses as present participle is called participle preposition.
Regarding:
Considering:
During:
Owing:
Respecting:

Disguise Preposition:

Definition: The prepositions which are not used as their own figure is known as disguise preposition.

1. O’clock (of) : Its five o’clock in my watch.
2. A side (on=a): He was standing a side of her.
3. Once a week (on =a): She comes here once a weak.
4. A hunting (a=on): He went out a hunting.

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